nobel ödülleri

1 /
la mer la mer
bir bankanın büyük bir bağışının ardından ekonomi dalında da verilmeye başlanan ödül. çıkışından da busundan da anlaşılacağı gibi pek bir halt olmayan ama nedense pek bir prestiji olan ödül.
subaquatic subaquatic
tarih boyunca toplam altı kişi tarafından reddedilmiş ödüldür.
jean paul satre ve le duc tho tarafından kişisel olarak ve üçü alman biri rus dört kişi de ülkelerinin baskıları sonucunda nobel ödülünü almamışlardır. bu kişilerin bir kısmı daha sonrasında nobel diplomalarını ve madalyalarını almak için akademiye başvurmuşlardır.
spaindustrial spaindustrial
her ne açıdan değerlendirilse değerlendirilsin, bu ödüller yanlıdır. şimdi beraber somut verilerle ödülün içi yüzünü tanıyalım.

ödüllerin isim babası, alfred nobel, dinamitin mucididir. patlayıcıları o kadar seviyordu ki, kardeşini bile bir kaza sonucu öldürdü. ayrıca çok zengindi, bakü'deki petrol rezerverinin bir kısmına hükmediyordu ve petrolleri satıyordu. nobel ödülleri, alfred nobel'in karanlık yüzüne bir maske olarak verilir. çünkü onun dinamitleri yüzlerce kişi öldürürken, o barış ödülü vererek kendini aklıyordu.

her sene ödüller, verilen kişiye para ödülü ile sunulur. verilen para, alfred nobel'in devrettiği mirasdan döndürülür. para,amerikan silah şirketlerine( örn: lockheed martin) hisse olarak yatırılır, gelir elde edilir ve para ödülü verilir. yani afrika'da iç savaşlarda binlerce insan silahlalrla öldürülürken, birilerine barış ödülü olarak para ödülüyle verilir.

bir dalı olan; edebiyat ödülleri itina ile verilir. buradaki itina biraz farklı - politik olarak verilir.1920'de knut hamsun(norveçli yazar) bir nazi sempatizanıydı(ki kendisi sonra hitlere ödülünü kendisi vermiştir.) churchill 1953'de bu ödülü almıştır, edebiyatçı olmamasına rağmen. gao xingjian,(ki kendisi çin halk cumhuriyetini uluslararası arena'da aşağıladığı, ve kendi ülkesini acımasızca eleştirdiği için yurtdışına sürülmüştür) 2000'de bu ödülü almıştır. 2006'da orhan pamuk bu ödüle değer görülmüştür. orhan pamuk'un bir sözünü aktaralım: "ya avrupa(birliği) ya barbarlık."

bu ödülün sahipleri, son senelerde kendi ülkelerine muhalif olan, reddeden veya kamuoyunda küçük düşüren kişilere verilir. çünkü, eğer bir ülkenin "aydınları"(?) bir tarafa çekilirse, bir ülke etkiye o kadar apaçık hale getirilir.

bu ödülü tek reddeden sartre'dır. o da bu ödülün politik nedenlerle verildiğini ve belirli amaçlara hizmet ettiğini söylemiştir. kendisi cezayir asıllı bir göçmendir.(bkz: cezayir soykırımı)

sanırım, nobel ödüllerini dikkatli tanımak gerek.
subaquatic subaquatic
1901 yılından bu yana fizik, kimya,tıp, edebiyat ve barış dallarında üstün başarılı insalara verilen ödülüdür. dünyanın en prestijli ödülü olarak kabul edilir. uluslararası olarak dağıtılan bu ödül isveç'te bulunan nobel vakfı tarafından dağıtılır.

dünyanın en önemli bililmadamlarına verilen bu ödüllerin üniversitelere göre dağılımını merak eden subaquatic aşağıdaki bilgilere ulaşmıştır. bu bilgiler dünya biliminin nasıl geliştiğine ve hangi ülkelerin öncü olduğuna dair sağlam kanıtlar içermektedir.
aşağıdaki liste bilim adamlarının ödül aldıkları dönemde bulundukları kurumları göstermektedir.



a.f. ıoffe physico-technical ınstitute, st. petersburg, russia
2000 - fizik, zhores ı. alferov

aarhus university, aarhus, denmark
1997 - kimya, jens c. skou

academy of sciences, moscow, ussr
1962 - fizik, lev landau
1978 - fizik, pyotr kapitsa
1975 - ekonomi, leonid vitaliyevich kantorovich

all souls college, oxford, united kingdom
1972 - ekonomi, john r. hicks

amsterdam university, amsterdam, the netherlands
1902 - fizik, pieter zeeman
1910 - fizik, johannes diderik van der waals

argonne national laboratory, argonne, ıl, usa
2003 - fizik, alexei a. abrikosov

arizona state university, tempe, az, usa
2004 - ekonomi, edward c. prescott

associated universities ınc., washington, dc, usa
2002 - fizik, riccardo giacconi

atomic energy research establishment, harwell, berkshire, united kingdom
1951 - fizik, john cockcroft

basel ınstitute for ımmunology, basel, switzerland
1984 - tıp, niels k. jerne
1984 - tıp, georges j.f. köhler

basel university, basel, switzerland
1950 - tıp, tadeus reichstein

bell laboratories, holmdel, nj, usa
1978 - fizik, arno penzias
1978 - fizik, robert woodrow wilson

bell telephone laboratories, new york, ny, usa
1937 - fizik, clinton davisson

bell telephone laboratories, murray hill, nj, usa
1956 - fizik, walter h. brattain
1977 - fizik, philip w. anderson

berlin university, berlin, germany
1918 - fizik, max planck
1933 - fizik, erwin schrödinger
1901 - kimya, jacobus h. van 't hoff
1902 - kimya, emil fischer
1920 - kimya, walther nernst
1936 - kimya, peter debye
1939 - kimya, adolf butenandt

berne university, berne, switzerland
1909 - tıp, theodor kocher

biozentrum der universität, basel, switzerland
1978 - tıp, werner arber

birmingham university, birmingham, united kingdom
1937 - kimya, norman haworth

brigham and women's hospital, boston, ma, usa
1990 - tıp, joseph e. murray

bristol university, bristol, united kingdom
1950 - fizik, cecil powell

brown university, providence, rı, usa
1972 - fizik, leon n. cooper

brussels university, brussels, belgium
1919 - tıp, jules bordet

bureau ınternational des poids et mesures (ınternational bureau of weights and measures), sèvres, france
1920 - fizik, charles edouard guillaume

calcutta university, calcutta, ındia
1930 - fizik, sir venkata raman

california ınstitute of technology (caltech), pasadena, ca, usa
1923 - fizik, robert a. millikan
1936 - fizik, carl d. anderson
1961 - fizik, rudolf mössbauer
1965 - fizik, richard p. feynman
1969 - fizik, murray gell-mann
1983 - fizik, william a. fowler
2004 - fizik, h. david politzer
1954 - kimya, linus pauling
1992 - kimya, rudolph a. marcus
1999 - kimya, ahmed zewail
2005 - kimya, robert h. grubbs
1933 - tıp, thomas h. morgan
1958 - tıp, george beadle
1969 - tıp, max delbrück
1981 - tıp, roger w. sperry
1995 - tıp, edward b. lewis
1962 - barış ödülü, linus pauling

cardiff university, cardiff, united kingdom
2007 - tıp, sir martin j. evans

carnegie ınstitute of technology, pittsburgh, pa, usa
1943 - fizik, otto stern

carnegie ınstitution of washington, long ısland, new york, ny, usa
1969 - tıp, alfred d. hershey

carnegie mellon university, pittsburgh, pa, usa
1978 - ekonomi, herbert a. simon
2004 - ekonomi, finn e. kydland

center for study of public choice, fairfax, va, usa
1986 - ekonomi, james m. buchanan jr.

central research laboratories, emı, london, united kingdom
1979 - tıp, godfrey n. hounsfield

cern, geneva, switzerland
1984 - fizik, carlo rubbia
1984 - fizik, simon van der meer
1988 - fizik, jack steinberger
1992 - fizik, georges charpak

city university of new york, new york, ny, usa
1990 - ekonomi, harry m. markowitz

cold spring harbor laboratory, cold spring harbor, ny, usa
1983 - tıp, barbara mcclintock

collège de france, paris, france
1991 - fizik, pierre-gilles de gennes
1997 - fizik, claude cohen-tannoudji
1987 - kimya, jean-marie lehn

cologne university, cologne, federal republic of germany
1950 - kimya, kurt alder

columbia university, new york, ny, usa
1944 - fizik, ısidor ısaac rabi
1949 - fizik, hideki yukawa
1955 - fizik, polykarp kusch
1957 - fizik, tsung-dao lee
1975 - fizik, james rainwater
1998 - fizik, horst l. störmer
1934 - kimya, harold c. urey
1956 - tıp, dickinson w. richards
2000 - tıp, eric r. kandel
2004 - tıp, richard axel
1931 - barış ödülü, nicholas murray butler
1996 - ekonomi, william vickrey
1999 - ekonomi, robert a. mundell
2001 - ekonomi, joseph e. stiglitz
2006 - ekonomi, edmund s. phelps

columbia university division, cardio-pulmonary laboratory, bellevue hospital, new york, ny, usa
1956 - tıp, andré f. cournand

copenhagen university, copenhagen, denmark
1922 - fizik, niels bohr
1920 - tıp, august krogh
1926 - tıp, johannes fibiger

cornell university, ıthaca, ny, usa
1967 - fizik, hans bethe
1982 - fizik, kenneth g. wilson
1996 - fizik, robert c. richardson
1996 - fizik, david m. lee
1946 - kimya, james b. sumner
1955 - kimya, vincent du vigneaud
1981 - kimya, roald hoffmann
1968 - tıp, robert w. holley

department of scientific and ındustrial research, london, united kingdom
1947 - fizik, edward v. appleton

digital pathways, ınc., mountain view, ca, usa
1988 - fizik, melvin schwartz

du pont, wilmington, de, usa
1987 - kimya, charles j. pedersen

école municipale de physique et de chimie industrielles (municipal school of ındustrial fizik and kimya), paris, france
1903 - fizik, pierre curie

école nationale supérieur des mines de paris, paris, france
1988 - ekonomi, maurice allais

école normale supérieure, paris, france
1966 - fizik, alfred kastler
1997 - fizik, claude cohen-tannoudji

école polytechnique, paris, france
1903 - fizik, henri becquerel

école supérieure de physique et chimie, paris, france
1992 - fizik, georges charpak

edinburgh university, edinburgh, united kingdom
1917 - fizik, charles glover barkla
1954 - fizik, max born

eidgenössische technische hochschule (swiss federal ınstitute of technology), zurich, switzerland
1939 - kimya, leopold ruzicka
1975 - kimya, vladimir prelog
1991 - kimya, richard r. ernst
2002 - kimya, kurt wüthrich

federal reserve bank of minneapolis, minneapolis, mn, usa
2004 - ekonomi, edward c. prescott

fermi national accelerator laboratory, batavia, ıl, usa
1988 - fizik, leon m. lederman

finsen medical light ınstitute, copenhagen, denmark
1903 - tıp, niels ryberg finsen

forschungszentrum jülich, jülich, germany
2007 - fizik, peter grünberg

frankfurt-on-the-main university, frankfurt-on-the-main, germany
1914 - fizik, max von laue

fred hutchinson cancer research center, seattle, wa, usa
1990 - tıp, e. donnall thomas
2001 - tıp, leland h. hartwell
2004 - tıp, linda b. buck

fritz-haber-ınstitut der max-planck-gesellschaft, berlin, federal republic of germany
1986 - fizik, ernst ruska

fritz-haber-ınstitut der max-planck-gesellschaft, berlin, germany
2007 - kimya, gerhard ertl

general electric company, schenectady, ny, usa
1973 - fizik, ıvar giaever
1932 - kimya, ırving langmuir

george mason university, fairfax, va, usa
2002 - ekonomi, vernon l. smith

ghent university, ghent, belgium
1938 - tıp, corneille heymans

glynn research laboratories, bodmin, united kingdom
1978 - kimya, peter mitchell

goettingen university, goettingen, germany
1925 - fizik, james franck
1910 - kimya, otto wallach
1925 - kimya, richard zsigmondy
1928 - kimya, adolf windaus
1908 - tıp, paul ehrlich

graz university, graz, austria
1923 - kimya, fritz pregl
1936 - tıp, otto loewi

greifswald university, greifswald, germany
1919 - fizik, johannes stark

groningen university, groningen, the netherlands
1953 - fizik, frits zernike

göteborg university, gothenburg, sweden
2000 - tıp, arvid carlsson

halle university, halle, germany
1925 - fizik, gustav hertz

harvard medical school, boston, ma, usa
1953 - tıp, fritz lipmann
1954 - tıp, john f. enders
1980 - tıp, baruj benacerraf
1981 - tıp, david h. hubel
1981 - tıp, torsten n. wiesel

harvard university, cambridge, ma, usa
1946 - fizik, percy w. bridgman
1952 - fizik, e. m. purcell
1965 - fizik, julian schwinger
1977 - fizik, john h. van vleck
1979 - fizik, steven weinberg
1981 - fizik, nicolaas bloembergen
1989 - fizik, norman f. ramsey
2005 - fizik, roy j. glauber
1914 - kimya, theodore w. richards
1965 - kimya, robert b. woodward
1976 - kimya, william lipscomb
1986 - kimya, dudley r. herschbach
1990 - kimya, elias james corey
1934 - tıp, george r. minot
1934 - tıp, william p. murphy
1961 - tıp, georg von békésy
1962 - tıp, james watson
1964 - tıp, konrad bloch
1967 - tıp, george wald
1950 - barış ödülü, ralph bunche
1971 - ekonomi, simon kuznets
1972 - ekonomi, kenneth j. arrow
1973 - ekonomi, wassily leontief
1997 - ekonomi, robert c. merton

harvard university, biological laboratories, cambridge, ma, usa
1980 - kimya, walter gilbert

harvard university, lyman laboratory, cambridge, ma, usa
1979 - fizik, sheldon glashow

helsinki university, helsinki, finland
1945 - kimya, artturi virtanen

ı.g. farbenindustrie a.g., heidelberg, germany
1931 - kimya, carl bosch

ı.g. farbenindustrie a.g., mannheim-rheinau, germany
1931 - kimya, friedrich bergius

ıbm thomas j. watson research center, yorktown heights, ny, usa
1973 - fizik, leo esaki

ıbm zurich research laboratory, rüschlikon, switzerland
1986 - fizik, heinrich rohrer
1986 - fizik, gerd binnig
1987 - fizik, j. georg bednorz
1987 - fizik, k. alex müller

ımperial cancer research fund, london, united kingdom
2001 - tıp, tim hunt
2001 - tıp, sir paul nurse

ımperial cancer research fund laboratory, london, united kingdom
1975 - tıp, renato dulbecco

ımperial college, london, united kingdom
1971 - fizik, dennis gabor
1979 - fizik, abdus salam
1969 - kimya, derek barton
1973 - kimya, geoffrey wilkinson

ındiana university, bloomington, ın, usa
1946 - tıp, hermann j. muller

ınnsbruck university, ınnsbruck, austria
1936 - fizik, victor f. hess

ınstitut du radium, paris, france
1935 - kimya, frédéric joliot
1935 - kimya, ırène joliot-curie

ınstitut français du pétrole, rueil-malmaison, france
2005 - kimya, yves chauvin

ınstitut pasteur, paris, france
1907 - tıp, alphonse laveran
1908 - tıp, ılya mechnikov
1965 - tıp, françois jacob
1965 - tıp, andré lwoff
1965 - tıp, jacques monod

ınstitute for advanced study, princeton, nj, usa
1957 - fizik, chen ning yang
2007 - ekonomi, eric s. maskin

ınstitute for biochemical research, buenos aires, argentina
1970 - kimya, luis leloir

ınstitute for chemical fizik of the academy of sciences of the ussr, moscow, ussr
1956 - kimya, nikolay semenov

ınstitute for ınfectious diseases, berlin, germany
1905 - tıp, robert koch

ınstitute of cell biology of the c.n.r, rome, ıtaly
1986 - tıp, rita levi-montalcini

ınstitute of physical kimya, cambridge, united kingdom
1967 - kimya, ronald g.w. norrish

ınstitute of technology, milan, ıtaly
1963 - kimya, giulio natta

ınstituto de biologia y medicina experimental (ınstitute for biology and experimental medicine), buenos aires, argentina
1947 - tıp, bernardo houssay

ınternational centre for theoretical fizik, trieste, ıtaly
1979 - fizik, abdus salam

ıstituto superiore di sanità (chief ınstitute of public health), rome, ıtaly
1957 - tıp, daniel bovet

jackson laboratory, bar harbor, me, usa
1980 - tıp, george d. snell

johns hopkins university school of medicine, baltimore, md, usa
2003 - kimya, peter agre
1978 - tıp, hamilton o. smith
1978 - tıp, daniel nathans

kaiser-wilhelm-ınstitut (now fritz-haber-ınstitut) für physikalische chemie und electrochemie, berlin-dahlem, germany
1918 - kimya, fritz haber

kaiser-wilhelm-ınstitut (now max-planck ınstitut) für chemie, berlin-dahlem, germany
1944 - kimya, otto hahn

kaiser-wilhelm-ınstitut (now max-planck ınstitut) für medizinische forschung, heidelberg, germany
1938 - kimya, richard kuhn

kaiser-wilhelm-ınstitut (now max-planck-ınstitut) für biochemie, berlin-dahlem, germany
1939 - kimya, adolf butenandt

kaiser-wilhelm-ınstitut (now max-planck-ınstitut) für biologie, berlin-dahlem, germany
1931 - tıp, otto warburg

kaiser-wilhelm-ınstitut (now max-planck-ınstitut) für physik, berlin, germany
1921 - fizik, albert einstein
1936 - kimya, peter debye

karolinska ınstitutet, stockholm, sweden
1967 - tıp, ragnar granit
1970 - tıp, ulf von euler
1982 - tıp, sune k. bergström
1982 - tıp, bengt ı. samuelsson

karolinska ınstitutet, nobel medical ınstitute, stockholm, sweden
1955 - tıp, hugo theorell

kiel university, kiel, germany
1905 - fizik, philipp lenard
1922 - tıp, otto meyerhof
1950 - kimya, otto diels

kyoto ımperial university, kyoto, japan
1949 - fizik, hideki yukawa

kyoto university, kyoto, japan
1981 - kimya, kenichi fukui

königliches ınstitut für experimentelle therapie (royal ınstitute for experimental therapy), frankfurt-on-the-main, germany
1908 - tıp, paul ehrlich

laboratories of the division of medicine and public health, rockefeller foundation, new york, ny, usa
1951 - tıp, max theiler

laboratorium der farben-fabriken j.r. geigy a.g. (laboratory of the j.r. geigy dye-factory co.), basel, switzerland
1948 - tıp, paul müller

landwirtschaftliche hochschule (agricultural college), berlin, germany
1907 - kimya, eduard buchner

leiden university, leiden, the netherlands
1902 - fizik, hendrik a. lorentz
1913 - fizik, heike kamerlingh onnes
1924 - tıp, willem einthoven

leipzig university, leipzig, germany
1932 - fizik, werner heisenberg
1909 - kimya, wilhelm ostwald

liverpool university, liverpool, united kingdom
1935 - fizik, james chadwick

london university, london, united kingdom
1928 - fizik, owen willans richardson
1937 - fizik, george paget thomson
1929 - kimya, arthur harden
1922 - tıp, archibald v. hill
1945 - tıp, sir alexander fleming
1962 - tıp, maurice wilkins

london university, king's college hospital medical school, london, united kingdom
1988 - tıp, sir james w. black

long term capital management, greenwich, ct, usa
1997 - ekonomi, myron s. scholes

ludwig-maximilians- universität, munich, germany
2005 - fizik, theodor w. hänsch

madrid university, madrid, spain
1906 - tıp, santiago ramón y cajal

mainz university, mainz, federal republic of germany
1956 - tıp, werner forssmann

marburg university, marburg, germany
1901 - tıp, emil von behring

marconi wireless telegraph co. ltd., london, united kingdom
1909 - fizik, guglielmo marconi

massachusetts general hospital, boston, ma, usa
1953 - tıp, fritz lipmann

massachusetts ınstitute of technology (mıt), cambridge, ma, usa
1964 - fizik, charles h. townes
1976 - fizik, samuel c.c. ting
1990 - fizik, jerome ı. friedman
1990 - fizik, henry w. kendall
1994 - fizik, clifford g. shull
2001 - fizik, wolfgang ketterle
2004 - fizik, frank wilczek
1995 - kimya, mario j. molina
2005 - kimya, richard r. schrock
1969 - tıp, salvador e. luria
1975 - tıp, david baltimore
1987 - tıp, susumu tonegawa
2002 - tıp, h. robert horvitz
1970 - ekonomi, paul a. samuelson
1985 - ekonomi, franco modigliani
1987 - ekonomi, robert m. solow

massachusetts ınstitute of technology (mıt), center for cancer research, cambridge, ma, usa
1993 - tıp, phillip a. sharp

max-planck-ınstitut für biochemie, martinsried, federal republic of germany
1988 - kimya, robert huber

max-planck-ınstitut für biophysik, frankfurt-on-the-main, federal republic of germany
1988 - kimya, hartmut michel

max-planck-ınstitut für biophysikalische chemie, goettingen, federal republic of germany
1991 - tıp, erwin neher

max-planck-ınstitut für chemie, mainz, federal republic of germany
1995 - kimya, paul j. crutzen

max-planck-ınstitut für entwicklungsbiologie, tübingen, federal republic of germany
1995 - tıp, christiane nüsslein-volhard

max-planck-ınstitut für festkörperforschung, stuttgart, federal republic of germany
1985 - fizik, klaus von klitzing

max-planck-ınstitut für kohlenforschung (max-planck-ınstitute for carbon research), mülheim/ruhr, federal republic of germany
1963 - kimya, karl ziegler

max-planck-ınstitut für medizinische forschung, heidelberg, federal republic of germany
1954 - fizik, walther bothe
1991 - tıp, bert sakmann

max-planck-ınstitut für physikalische chemie, goettingen, federal republic of germany
1967 - kimya, manfred eigen

max-planck-ınstitut für quantenoptik, garching, germany
2005 - fizik, theodor w. hänsch

max-planck-ınstitut für zellchemie, munich, federal republic of germany
1964 - tıp, feodor lynen
mayo clinic, rochester, mn, usa
1950 - tıp, philip s. hench
1950 - tıp, edward c. kendall

mcmaster university, hamilton, ontario, canada
1994 - fizik, bertram n. brockhouse

military medical academy, st. petersburg, russia
1904 - tıp, ıvan pavlov

mrc laboratory of molecular biology, cambridge, united kingdom
1962 - kimya, john c. kendrew
1962 - kimya, max f. perutz
1980 - kimya, frederick sanger
1982 - kimya, aaron klug
1997 - kimya, john e. walker
1962 - tıp, francis crick
1984 - tıp, césar milstein

munich university, munich, germany
1901 - fizik, wilhelm conrad röntgen
1905 - kimya, adolf von baeyer
1915 - kimya, richard willstätter
1927 - kimya, heinrich wieland

munster university, munster, germany
1939 - tıp, gerhard domagk

nagoya university, nagoya, japan
2001 - kimya, ryoji noyori

nancy university, nancy, france
1912 - kimya, victor grignard

nasa goddard space flight center, greenbelt, md, usa
2006 - fizik, john c. mather

national ınstitute for medical research, london, united kingdom
1952 - kimya, archer j.p. martin
1936 - tıp, sir henry dale

national ınstitute of environmental health sciences, research triangle park, nc, usa
1994 - tıp, martin rodbell

national ınstitute of standards and technology, gaithersburg, md, usa
1997 - fizik, william d. phillips

national ınstitute of standards and technology, boulder, co, usa
2005 - fizik, john l. hall

national ınstitutes of health, bethesda, md, usa
1972 - kimya, christian anfinsen
1968 - tıp, marshall w. nirenberg
1970 - tıp, julius axelrod
1976 - tıp, d. carleton gajdusek

national research council of canada, ottawa, canada
1971 - kimya, gerhard herzberg

neurological ınstitute, lisbon, portugal
1949 - tıp, egas moniz

new england biolabs, beverly, ma, usa
1993 - tıp, richard j. roberts

new york university, new york, ny, usa
2003 - ekonomi, robert f. engle ııı

new york university, college of medicine, new york, ny, usa
1959 - tıp, severo ochoa

nhmrc helicobacter pylori research laboratory, qeıı medical centre, nedlands, australia
2005 - tıp, barry j. marshall

niels bohr ınstitute, copenhagen, denmark
1975 - fizik, aage n. bohr

nordita, copenhagen, denmark
1975 - fizik, ben r. mottelson

northwestern university, evanston, ıl, usa
1998 - kimya, john pople

p.n. lebedev physical ınstitute, moscow, russia
2003 - fizik, vitaly l. ginzburg

p.n. lebedev physical ınstitute, moscow, ussr
1958 - fizik, ıl´ja m. frank
1958 - fizik, ıgor y. tamm
1958 - fizik, pavel a. cherenkov
1964 - fizik, aleksandr m. prokhorov
1964 - fizik, nicolay g. basov

pavia university, pavia, ıtaly
1906 - tıp, camillo golgi

peter brent brigham hospital, boston, ma, usa
1934 - tıp, william p. murphy

polarographic ınstitute of the czechoslovak academy of science, prague, czechoslovakia
1959 - kimya, jaroslav heyrovsky

polytechnic ınstitute, copenhagen, denmark
1943 - tıp, henrik dam

princeton university, princeton, nj, usa
1945 - fizik, wolfgang pauli
1963 - fizik, eugene wigner
1980 - fizik, val fitch
1993 - fizik, russell a. hulse
1993 - fizik, joseph h. taylor jr.
1998 - fizik, daniel c. tsui
1995 - tıp, eric f. wieschaus
1979 - ekonomi, sir arthur lewis
1994 - ekonomi, john f. nash jr.
2002 - ekonomi, daniel kahneman

purdue university, west lafayette, ın, usa
1979 - kimya, herbert c. brown

research division of ınfectious diseases, children's medical center, boston, ma, usa
1954 - tıp, thomas h. weller
1954 - tıp, john f. enders

rheinische friedrich-wilhelms-universität, bonn, federal republic of germany
1994 - ekonomi, reinhard selten

rice university, houston, tx, usa
1996 - kimya, robert f. curl jr.
1996 - kimya, richard e. smalley

rochester university, rochester, ny, usa
1934 - tıp, george h. whipple

rockefeller ınstitute for medical research, princeton, nj, usa
1946 - kimya, john h. northrop
1946 - kimya, wendell m. stanley

rockefeller ınstitute for medical research, new york, ny, usa
1912 - tıp, alexis carrel
1930 - tıp, karl landsteiner
1944 - tıp, herbert s. gasser
1958 - tıp, edward tatum

rockefeller university, new york, ny, usa
1972 - kimya, stanford moore
1972 - kimya, william h. stein
1984 - kimya, bruce merrifield
2003 - kimya, roderick mackinnon
1966 - tıp, peyton rous
1967 - tıp, haldan k. hartline
1972 - tıp, gerald m. edelman
1974 - tıp, christian de duve
1999 - tıp, günter blobel
2000 - tıp, paul greengard

rome university, rome, ıtaly
1938 - fizik, enrico fermi

rowett research ınstitute, bucksburn (scotland), united kingdom
1952 - kimya, richard l.m. synge

royal ınstitute of technology, stockholm, sweden
1970 - fizik, hannes alfvén

royal ınstitution of great britain, london, united kingdom
1904 - fizik, lord rayleigh
1967 - kimya, george porter

rutgers university, new brunswick, nj, usa
1952 - tıp, selman a. waksman

saint louis university, st. louis, mo, usa
1943 - tıp, edward a. doisy

semiconductor laboratory of beckman ınstruments, ınc., mountain view, ca, usa
1956 - fizik, william b. shockley

sheffield university, sheffield, united kingdom
1953 - tıp, hans krebs

shimadzu corp., kyoto, japan
2002 - kimya, koichi tanaka

sorbonne university, paris, france
1908 - fizik, gabriel lippmann
1926 - fizik, jean baptiste perrin
1906 - kimya, henri moissan
1911 - kimya, marie curie
1913 - tıp, charles richet
1907 - barış ödülü, louis renault

sorbonne university, ınstitut henri poincaré, paris, france
1929 - fizik, louis de broglie

st. jude children's research hospital, memphis, tn, usa
1996 - tıp, peter c. doherty

staatliches ınstitut für makromolekulare chemie (state research ınstitute for macromolecular kimya), freiburg, breisgau, federal republic of germany
1953 - kimya, hermann staudinger

stanford linear accelerator center, stanford, ca, usa
1976 - fizik, burton richter

stanford university, stanford, ca, usa
1952 - fizik, felix bloch
1955 - fizik, willis e. lamb
1961 - fizik, robert hofstadter
1981 - fizik, arthur l. schawlow
1990 - fizik, richard e. taylor
1995 - fizik, martin l. perl
1996 - fizik, douglas d. osheroff
1997 - fizik, steven chu
1998 - fizik, robert b. laughlin
1974 - kimya, paul j. flory
1980 - kimya, paul berg
1983 - kimya, henry taube
2006 - kimya, roger d. kornberg
1959 - tıp, arthur kornberg
1990 - ekonomi, william f. sharpe
2001 - ekonomi, a. michael spence

stanford university school of medicine, stanford, ca, usa
2006 - tıp, andrew z. fire

stockholm school of economics, stockholm, sweden
1977 - ekonomi, bertil ohlin

stockholm university, stockholm, sweden
1903 - kimya, svante arrhenius
1929 - kimya, hans von euler-chelpin
1943 - kimya, george de hevesy

strasbourg university, strasbourg, alsace, then germany
1909 - fizik, ferdinand braun

suny health science center, brooklyn, ny, usa
1998 - tıp, robert f. furchgott

swedish gas-accumulator co., lidingö-stockholm, sweden
1912 - fizik, gustaf dalén

szeged university, szeged, hungary
1937 - tıp, albert szent-györgyi

technical university, munich, federal republic of germany
1961 - fizik, rudolf mössbauer
1973 - kimya, ernst otto fischer

technion – ısrael ınstitute of technology, haifa, ısrael
2004 - kimya, aaron ciechanover
2004 - kimya, avram hershko

technische hochschule (ınstitute of technology), munich, germany
1930 - kimya, hans fischer

texas ınstruments, dallas, tx, usa
2000 - fizik, jack s. kilby

the ınstitute for cancer research, philadelphia, pa, usa
1976 - tıp, baruch s. blumberg

the medical foundation of buffalo, buffalo, ny, usa
1985 - kimya, herbert a. hauptman

the molecular sciences ınstitute, berkeley, ca, usa
2002 - tıp, sydney brenner

the netherlands school of economics, rotterdam, the netherlands
1969 - ekonomi, jan tinbergen

the salk ınstitute, san diego, ca, usa
1977 - tıp, roger guillemin

the scripps research ınstitute, la jolla, ca, usa
2001 - kimya, k. barry sharpless
2002 - kimya, kurt wüthrich

the wellcome research laboratories, beckenham, united kingdom
1982 - tıp, john r. vane

the wellcome trust sanger ınstitute, cambridge, united kingdom
2002 - tıp, john e. sulston

tokyo university of education, tokyo, japan
1965 - fizik, sin-ıtiro tomonaga

toulouse university, toulouse, france
1912 - kimya, paul sabatier

trinity college, cambridge, united kingdom
1998 - ekonomi, amartya sen

trinity college, dublin, ıreland
1951 - fizik, ernest t.s. walton

tufts university, medford, ma, usa
1979 - tıp, allan m. cormack

unité mixte de physique cnrs/thales, orsay, france
2007 - fizik, albert fert

université paris-sud, orsay, france
2007 - fizik, albert fert

université catholique de louvain, louvain, belgium
1974 - tıp, albert claude

université de paris, laboratoire ımmuno-hématologie, paris, france
1980 - tıp, jean dausset

université libre de bruxelles, brussels, belgium
1977 - kimya, ılya prigogine

université louis pasteur, strasbourg, france
1987 - kimya, jean-marie lehn

university college, liverpool, united kingdom
1902 - tıp, ronald ross

university college, london, united kingdom
1915 - fizik, william bragg
1904 - kimya, sir william ramsay
1960 - tıp, peter medawar
1963 - tıp, andrew f. huxley
1963 - tıp, sir john eccles
1970 - tıp, sir bernard katz

university of bonn, bonn, federal republic of germany
1989 - fizik, wolfgang paul

university of british columbia, vancouver, canada
1993 - kimya, michael smith

university of california, berkeley, ca, usa
1939 - fizik, ernest lawrence
1959 - fizik, owen chamberlain
1959 - fizik, emilio segrè
1960 - fizik, donald a. glaser
1968 - fizik, luis alvarez
2006 - fizik, george f. smoot
1949 - kimya, william f. giauque
1951 - kimya, glenn t. seaborg
1951 - kimya, edwin m. mcmillan
1961 - kimya, melvin calvin
1986 - kimya, yuan t. lee
1983 - ekonomi, gerard debreu
1994 - ekonomi, john c. harsanyi
2000 - ekonomi, daniel l. mcfadden
2001 - ekonomi, george a. akerlof

university of california, la jolla, ca, usa
1963 - fizik, maria goeppert-mayer

university of california, ırvine, ca, usa
1995 - fizik, frederick reines
1995 - kimya, f. sherwood rowland
2004 - kimya, ırwin rose

university of california, los angeles, ca, usa
1960 - kimya, willard f. libby
1987 - kimya, donald j. cram
1997 - kimya, paul d. boyer

university of california, santa barbara, ca, usa
2000 - fizik, herbert kroemer
1998 - kimya, walter kohn
2000 - kimya, alan heeger
2004 - ekonomi, finn e. kydland

university of california, san diego, ca, usa
2003 - ekonomi, clive w.j. granger

university of california school of medicine, los angeles, ca, usa
1998 - tıp, louis j. ıgnarro

university of california school of medicine, san francisco, ca, usa
1989 - tıp, j. michael bishop
1989 - tıp, harold e. varmus
1997 - tıp, stanley b. prusiner

university of california, kavli ınstitute for theoretical fizik, santa barbara, ca, usa
2004 - fizik, david j. gross

university of cambridge, cambridge, united kingdom
1906 - fizik, j.j. thomson
1927 - fizik, c.t.r. wilson
1933 - fizik, paul a.m. dirac
1973 - fizik, brian d. josephson
1974 - fizik, antony hewish
1974 - fizik, martin ryle
1977 - fizik, sir nevill f. mott
1922 - kimya, francis w. aston
1957 - kimya, lord todd
1958 - kimya, frederick sanger
1929 - tıp, sir frederick hopkins
1932 - tıp, edgar adrian
1963 - tıp, alan l. hodgkin
1977 - ekonomi, james e. meade
1984 - ekonomi, richard stone
1996 - ekonomi, james a. mirrlees

university of chicago, chicago, ıl, usa
1907 - fizik, albert a. michelson
1927 - fizik, arthur h. compton
1980 - fizik, james cronin
1983 - fizik, subramanyan chandrasekhar
1966 - kimya, robert s. mulliken
1976 - ekonomi, milton friedman
1979 - ekonomi, theodore w. schultz
1982 - ekonomi, george j. stigler
1990 - ekonomi, merton h. miller
1991 - ekonomi, ronald h. coase
1992 - ekonomi, gary s. becker
1993 - ekonomi, robert w. fogel
1995 - ekonomi, robert e. lucas jr.
2000 - ekonomi, james j. heckman
2007 - ekonomi, roger b. myerson

university of chicago, ben may laboratory for cancer research, chicago, ıl, usa
1966 - tıp, charles b. huggins

university of colorado, boulder, co, usa
1989 - kimya, thomas r. cech

university of colorado, jıla, boulder, co, usa
2001 - fizik, carl e. wieman
2001 - fizik, eric a. cornell
2005 - fizik, john l. hall

university of freiburg, breisgau, federal republic of germany
1953 - kimya, hermann staudinger

university of freiburg im breisgau, breisgau, germany
1935 - tıp, hans spemann

university of grenoble, grenoble, france
1970 - fizik, louis néel

university of heidelberg, heidelberg, germany
1931 - kimya, carl bosch
1931 - kimya, friedrich bergius
1938 - kimya, richard kuhn
1910 - tıp, albrecht kossel

university of heidelberg, heidelberg, federal republic of germany
1954 - fizik, walther bothe
1963 - fizik, j. hans d. jensen
1979 - kimya, georg wittig

university of ıllinois, urbana, ıl, usa
1956 - fizik, john bardeen
1972 - fizik, john bardeen
2003 - fizik, anthony j. leggett
2003 - tıp, paul c. lauterbur

university of jerusalem, center for rationalityhebrew, jerusalem, ısrael
2005 - ekonomi, robert j. aumann

university of lisbon, lisbon, portugal
1949 - tıp, egas moniz

university of maryland, department of economics and school of public policy, college park, md, usa
2005 - ekonomi, thomas c. schelling

university of massachusetts medical school, worcester, ma, usa
2006 - tıp, craig c. mello

university of minnesota, minneapolis, mn, usa
2007 - ekonomi, leonid hurwicz

university of moscow, moscow, ussr
1958 - fizik, ıl´ja m. frank
1958 - fizik, ıgor y. tamm

university of north carolina at chapel hill, chapel hill, nc, usa
2007 - tıp, oliver smithies

university of nottingham, school of fizik and astronomy, nottingham, united kingdom
2003 - tıp, sir peter mansfield

university of oslo, oslo, norway
1969 - kimya, odd hassel
1969 - ekonomi, ragnar frisch
1989 - ekonomi, trygve haavelmo
university of oxford, oxford, united kingdom
1921 - kimya, frederick soddy
1947 - kimya, sir robert robinson
1956 - kimya, sir cyril hinshelwood
1932 - tıp, sir charles sherrington
1945 - tıp, ernst b. chain
1945 - tıp, sir howard florey
1972 - tıp, rodney r. porter
1973 - tıp, nikolaas tinbergen

university of oxford, royal society, oxford, united kingdom
1964 - kimya, dorothy crowfoot hodgkin

university of pennsylvania, philadelphia, pa, usa
1972 - fizik, robert schrieffer
2002 - fizik, raymond davis jr.
2000 - kimya, alan g. macdiarmid
1980 - ekonomi, lawrence r. klein

university of southern california, los angeles, ca, usa
1994 - kimya, george a. olah

university of sussex, brighton, united kingdom
1975 - kimya, john cornforth
1996 - kimya, sir harold kroto

university of texas, austin, tx, usa
1977 - kimya, ılya prigogine

university of texas medical school at houston, houston, tx, usa
1998 - tıp, ferid murad

university of texas southwestern medical center at dallas, dallas, tx, usa
1988 - kimya, johann deisenhofer
1985 - tıp, michael s. brown
1985 - tıp, joseph l. goldstein
1994 - tıp, alfred g. gilman

university of tokyo, tokyo, japan
2002 - fizik, masatoshi koshiba

university of toronto, toronto, canada
1986 - kimya, john c. polanyi
1923 - tıp, frederick g. banting
1923 - tıp, john macleod

university of tsukuba, tokyo, japan
2000 - kimya, hideki shirakawa

university of utah, salt lake city, ut, usa
2007 - tıp, mario r. capecchi

university of washington, seattle, wa, usa
1989 - fizik, hans g. dehmelt
1992 - tıp, edmond h. fischer
1992 - tıp, edwin g. krebs

university of western australia, nedlands, australia
2005 - tıp, barry j. marshall

university of wisconsin, madison, wı, usa
1958 - tıp, joshua lederberg
1968 - tıp, h. gobind khorana
1975 - tıp, howard m. temin

university of zurich, zurich, switzerland
1913 - kimya, alfred werner
1937 - kimya, paul karrer
1949 - tıp, walter hess

university of zurich, ınstitute of experimental ımmunology, zurich, switzerland
1996 - tıp, rolf m. zinkernagel

uppsala university, uppsala, sweden
1924 - fizik, manne siegbahn
1981 - fizik, kai m. siegbahn
1926 - kimya, the svedberg
1948 - kimya, arne tiselius
1911 - tıp, allvar gullstrand

us naval research laboratory, washington, dc, usa
1985 - kimya, jerome karle

utrecht university, utrecht, the netherlands
1999 - fizik, gerardus 't hooft
1929 - tıp, christiaan eijkman

vanderbilt university, nashville, tn, usa
1971 - tıp, earl w. sutherland, jr.

vanderbilt university school of medicine, nashville, tn, usa
1986 - tıp, stanley cohen
veterans administration hospital, new orleans, la, usa
1977 - tıp, andrew v. schally

veterans administration hospital, bronx, ny, usa
1977 - tıp, rosalyn yalow

victoria university, manchester, united kingdom
1915 - fizik, lawrence bragg
1948 - fizik, patrick m.s. blackett
1908 - kimya, ernest rutherford

vienna university, vienna, austria
1914 - tıp, robert bárány
1927 - tıp, julius wagner-jauregg

virginia commonwealth university, richmond, va, usa
2002 - kimya, john b. fenn

walter and eliza hall ınstitute for medical research, melbourne, australia
1960 - tıp, sir frank macfarlane burnet

washington university, st. louis, mo, usa
1944 - tıp, joseph erlanger
1947 - tıp, carl cori
1947 - tıp, gerty cori
1993 - ekonomi, douglass c. north

wellcome research laboratories, research triangle park, nc, usa
1988 - tıp, george h. hitchings
1988 - tıp, gertrude b. elion

western reserve university, cleveland, oh, usa
1954 - tıp, frederick c. robbins

würzburg university, würzburg, germany
1911 - fizik, wilhelm wien
yale university, new haven, ct, usa
1968 - kimya, lars onsager
1989 - kimya, sidney altman
1975 - ekonomi, tjalling c. koopmans
1981 - ekonomi, james tobin
yale university, school of medicine, new haven, ct, usa
1974 - tıp, george e. palade

zoologisches ınstitut der universität münchen, munich, federal republic of germany
1973 - tıp, karl von frisch

österreichische akademie der wissenschaften, ınstitut für vergleichende verhaltensforschung, vienna, austria
1973 - tıp, konrad lorenz
recai pengül recai pengül
nobel ödül komitesinin her yıl ödüller açıklanır açıklanmaz, kazananlarla telefonda kısa bir görüşme yapma geleneği varmış. şu bağlantıda 6 ekim 2009'da nobel fizik ödülünü kazanan george e. smith'e sabahın köründe, fizik nobelini kazandığını haber veren telefonun kaydını dinleyebilirsiniz: telephone ınterview with george e. smith - media player at nobelprize.org nobelprize.org, the official web site of the nobel prize nobelprize

okumak isteyenler için yine aynı sayfadan görüşmenin metni aşağıda.

(george smith ödülü kazanan, adam smith nobelprize.org'un editörü)

[george smith] hello

[adam smith] good morning. may ı speak to george smith please?

[gs] speaking.

[as] oh hello. my name is adam smith. ı'm calling from the official web site of the nobel foundation, in stockholm, sweden.

[gs] oh my goodness.

[as] have you heard the news that you have... ıt has just been announced in stockholm that you have been awarded this year's nobel prize in physics.

[gs] no! my goodness.

[as] well, ı'm very pleased to be the person to tell you the news.

[gs] ah, thank you. ı'm amazed. let's see, myself and bill boyle, ı guess?

[as] exactly. yourself and bill boyle, and then also charles kao for his work on optical fibers.

[gs] oh, very good.

[as] well, my congratulations. of course the work you did was done in the late 60s, in 1969 in particular. ı imagine it's something of a surprise hearing the news at this point.

[gs] yes, that's correct. and let's see, what's your name again, sir?

[as] my name is adam smith, and ı'm the editor-in-chief of the nobel foundation official website, based here in stockholm. we have a tradition of recording very brief interviews with the new laureates as soon as they are announced and, hence, my call. and, indeed, there is currently a press conference going on at the royal swedish academy of sciences, here in stockholm, where the announcement has just been made and bill boyle, ı think, is actually on the telephone and will take part in the press conference there.

[gs] ho ho. ok. ıs there anything ı should do?

[as] no, ı'm sure that the royal swedish academy will be phoning you very, very shortly. ı gather that they have been trying to reach you already so perhaps ...

[gs] yes, ı got up, but by the time ı got to the telephone, they had hung up. that's why ı'm awake now.

[as] ok, well, lucky for me. may ı just ask you a very few questions and then ı'll get off the phone and allow them to call you?

[gs] sure.

[as] thank you. the first thing is that you, ı gather, have a record for having submitted the shortest thesis on record at the university of chicago - just three pages.

[gs] something like that, yes.

[as] so, you were obviously a star student. and you moved straight from being a graduate student to bell labs?

[gs] yes, that's correct.

[as] what was it about the atmosphere are bell labs that was so special? many have talked about it, but could you tell us?

[gs] oh my goodness. ıt was just very exciting. and, ı started off in the research area, where there was essentially not much direction in that you were allowed to do yourself and stand or fall on your own. and that was nice. most of all, there were just a lot of exciting, intelligent people around that you could interact with.

[as] and, it gave you, presumably, the freedom to think and invent unlike anywhere else?

[gs] oh, yes, that's a true statement.

[as] and, the idea for formulating the ccd, where did that come from?

[gs] our heads, actually. will boyle and ı got together one afternoon. ıt was actually a one afternoon shot and, well, we had a habit of batting things back and forth. we have a couple of other patents together too, around about, ı don't know, thirty or forty something overall. and, you know, things just happened to get together. ı could give you a longer explanation. ı actually give a talk on the invention and what ı think was the elements that lead into it. but that would take a little time now.

[as] well, hopefully you'll come to stockholm in december to receive the award and at that point we get a longer time to interview you, so we can speak at length then. just one last thing. ı know that you've been sailing around the world for many years. are we lucky to catch you at home now or are you now done with sailing?

[gs] no, ı'm at home. ı'm done with it. the boat is still sitting at our dock out in our backyard. but, we don't plan on doing any ocean cruising any longer. ı'm 79 years old now and, ı think, a little long in the tooth for ocean sailing.

[as] ok, well, ı'm delighted to have caught you. and, thank you very much indeed for speaking to us. and, ı'm sure that people will be bombarding you now, but in particular ı know that the royal swedish academy of sciences would like to speak to you so ı'll get off the telephone.

[gs] ok, and ı definitely will not go back to sleep.

[as] ı don't think that's going to be possible on a day such as this. my congratulations once again.

[gs] well, thanks again.

[as] thank you.

[gs] thanks for calling.

[as] thank you, a pleasure, bye, bye.

[gs] bye.
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