ile ilgili bilgiler veren metinleri içeren kadim mısırda yazılmış kitaptır.
ingilizce olarak alıntıladığım ve ölüler kitabında bu kavramların nasıl anlatıldığını içeren pasaj:
the modern title "book of the dead" is misleading, because the texts are not about death but about life: specifically, eternal life as a spirit, which every egyptian hoped to attain after death.
the egyptians believed that every living person was composed of three essential elements: body
, and ka
. they recognized that the body was mortal, and would one day fail and die. but they also believed that life transcended this temporary physical shell.
every human life also had a nonphysical aspect, known as the ba
. somewhat like the modern western concept of personality
or the soul
, the ba
was essentially the individual himself or herself, inhabiting the body during life but capable of independent exis¬tence after the body's death.
life for both the body
and the ba
was made possible by the ka
, an animating force transferred by the creator
to every human being. death occurred when the ka
separated from the body
and returned to its maker.
ın order to achieve a successful afterlife, the ba
had to be reunited with its ka
. once that had happened, the individual could continue to live forever, in a spiritual form known as the akh
, or "effective being."
the book of the dead was designed to aid the deceased in making a successful transition from death to eternal life as an akh
. most of its texts belong to a genre of funerary literature that the egyptians called "akh makers
(bkz: ruh ve nefs/@benolanben
) (bkz: kaba